Personal injury claims in the United States of America generally attract damage awards considerably higher than those handed down by the courts of other countries. In order to maintain Members’ premiums at reasonable levels it is essential that Members protect themselves from exposure to claims made in the US courts to the maximum possible degree. Carefully worded passenger ticket conditions incorporating local law, the Athens Convention and requiring litigation to be conducted exclusively in the courts of the Members’ domicile, are essential in achieving this. Members should also bear in mind that direct marketing to American citizens (through various media such as brochures, e-mail, newspapers, radio stations and television), particularly in the States of California, Oregon and Washington, can expose them to US jurisdiction. Similarly, appointing a marketing agent in the United States can also render them subject to US jurisdiction.